Current Affairs Dec 28

Several Development Projects Launched In Assam

Why in News?

  • Union Home Minister laid foundation stone of a medical college and nine law institutes, besides launching two other projects in Assam during his visit to the state.
  • Laid the foundation stone of Guwahati’s second medical college and hospital.
  • Nine law colleges to be set up at Diphu, Silchar, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, North Lakhimpur, Jorhat, Nalbari, Rangia and Raha.
  • The development and beautification project of Batadrava ‘Than’ at Borduwa in Nagaon district, the birthplace of 15th century Vaishnav reformer-saint Srimanta Sankardeva.
  • The ‘Than’ or Vaishnav monastery will be developed as a centre of art, culture, research and spirituality.
  • The third phase of the “Asom Darshan” scheme to protect places of worship of different faiths. In this phase, 8,000 ‘Naamghars’ (Vaishnav prayer and community halls) which are over 50 years old will be given Rs 2.5 lakh each.




Monpa Handmade Paper Industry

Why in News?

  • The 1000-year old heritage art – the Monpa Handmade Paper of Arunachal Pradesh – which was driven to the extinction, has come to life once again, with the committed efforts of Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).


  • The art of making Monpa handmade paper originated over 1000 years ago.
  • Gradually the art became an integral part of local custom and culture in Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Once produced in every household in Tawang, this handmade paper was a major source of livelihood for the locals.
  • However, the handmade paper industry almost disappeared in the last 100 years.


  • KVIC commissioned a Monpa handmade paper making unit in Tawang which not only aims at reviving the art but also engaging the local youths with this art professionally and earn.
  • The fine-textured handmade paper, which is called Mon Shugu in the local dialect, is integral to the vibrant culture of the local tribes in Tawang.


  • The paper has great historic and religious significance as it is the paper used for writing Buddhist scriptures and hymns in monasteries.
  • The Monpa handmade paper, will be made from the bark of a local tree called Shugu Sheng, which has medicinal values too.
  • Hence availability of raw material will not be a problem.
  • Monpas used to sell these papers to countries like Tibet, Bhutan, Thailand and Japan as no paper making industry existed in these countries at that time.
  • However, the local industry gradually began declining and the indigenous handmade paper was taken over by inferior Chinese paper.
  • Apart from handmade paper, Tawang is known for two other local crafts – handmade pottery and handmade furniture – that are also getting extinct with passage of time.




Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC)

Why in News?

  • Prime Minister will inaugurate the ‘New Bhaupur- New Khurja section’ of Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC) on 29th December, 2020.
  • He will also inaugurate EDFC’s Operation Control Centre (OCC) at Prayagraj.
  • The 351 km New Bhaupur- New Khurja section of EDFC is situated in Uttar pradesh.
  • The section will open new vistas of opportunity for the local industries such as aluminium industry (Pukhrayan region of Kanpur Dehat district), dairy sector (Auraiya district), textile production/block printing (Etawah district), glassware industry (Firozabad district), pottery products (Khurja of Bulandshahr district), asafoetida or ‘hing’ production (Hathras district) and locks and hardware (Aligarh district).
  • The section will also decongest the existing Kanpur-Delhi main line and will enable Indian Railways to run faster trains.
  • A state-of-the-art Operation Control Centre (OCC) at Prayagraj will act as the command centre for the entire route length of the EDFC.
  • The building is environment-friendly with a Green Building rating of GRIHA4 and is built as per norms of the ‘Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan’.

About Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC)

  • The EDFC (1856 route km) starts from Sahnewal near Ludhiana (Punjab) and will pass through the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand to terminate at Dankuni in West Bengal.
  • It is being constructed by Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited (DFCCIL) that has been set up as a special purpose vehicle to build and operate Dedicated Freight Corridors.
  • DFCCIL is also constructing the Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (1504 route km) that connects Dadri in Uttar Pradesh to Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai and will traverse through the states of UP, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.




Inner Line Permit to Manipur

Why in News?

  • Union Home Minister recently said that Prime Minister Narendra Modi “gifted Inner Line Permit (ILP)” to Manipur as he felt that it would be injustice to them since other surrounding states have the regime.

About ILP

  • ILP is issued to grant inward travel permission to an Indian citizen for a limited period into a state where it is in force.
  • The ILP regime was formally introduced in Manipur on January 1, 2020.
  • Manipur is the fourth state in the Northeast to have the ILP regime.
  • Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh are the three other states that have the ILP system.
  • Home Minister laid foundation stones for seven projects including Churachandpur Medical College and IT-SEZ at Mantripukhuri.
  • He also inaugurated the much awaited Rs 1,998-crore Thoubal multi-purpose project and the Rs 475-crore Bishnupur-Tupul-Thoubal-Kasom Khullen road.

What is Inner Line?

  • A concept drawn by colonial rulers, the Inner Line separated the tribal-populated hill areas in the Northeast from the plains.
  • To enter and stay for any period in these areas, Indian citizens from other areas need an Inner Line Permit (ILP).
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram are protected by the Inner Line, and lately Manipur was added.
  • The concept originates from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act (BEFR), 1873.
  • The BEFR prohibits an outsider’s — “British subject or foreign citizen” — entry into the area beyond the Inner Line without a pass and his purchase of land there.
  • On the other hand, the Inner Line also protects the commercial interests of the British from the tribal communities.
  • After Independence, the Indian government replaced “British subjects” with “Citizen of India”.
  • In 2013, the Home Ministry told Rajya Saha, “The main aim of ILP system is to prevent settlement of other Indian nationals in the States where ILP regime is prevalent, in order to protect the indigenous/tribal population.”




Storm Bella

Why in News?

  • Thousands of households in France and the UK were left without electricity as storm Bella caused torrential rain and heavy winds in the region.
  • The storm has disrupted air travel, with over a third of flights from France’s main airport of Charles de Gaulle in Paris suffering delays of an average of 50 minutes.




First Indigenous Pneumonia Vaccine

Why in News?

  • The first indigenous vaccine against pneumonia, developed by the Serum Institute of India (SII), will be launched by Union Health Minister.
  • The vaccine will be much more affordable than the existing ones manufactured by two foreign companies.
  • Recently, , India’s drug regulator had granted market approval for the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate vaccine, after reviewing the phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trial data submitted by the Pune-based firm.
  • This vaccine is used for active immunisation against invasive disease and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia in infants.




Tiger radio collared in Sunderbans

Why in News?

  • The West Bengal Forest Department has radio collared a tiger in the Sunderban Tiger Reserve and released it in the wild.
  • The initiative has been taken by wildlife wing of West Bengal Forest Department in collaboration with the World Wild Fund for Nature-India (WWF) India is aimed at ‘Assessing Tiger-Human Interactions through Radio-Telemetry’.

Why Needed?

  • The data from satellite telemetry will be primarily used to study interactions between tigers and human populations one of the first times in the regions.
  • The human-tiger interaction is crucial to the survival of the Sunderbans’ tigers.

About Sunderbans

  • Sunderbans, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Ramsar site, has always been a challenge because of the difficult landscape, which comprises of dense mangrove forests, with creeks and rivulets and floods twice a day during high tides.
  • Sunderbans are the only mangrove forest in the world with a tiger population.
  • The last estimation of tigers in Sunderbans in 2019-20 had shown that the number of tigers in the reserve had increased to 96.




Lost 1% of Global GDP to Cybercrime

Why in News?

  • The year 2020 was largely about COVID-19, both online and offline.
  • Cybercriminals have used pandemic to launch scams and phishing attacks on critical infrastructure, social media, medical and research institutions, and individual users.
  • Cyber security firm McAfee noted that cybercrime incidents could cost the world around $1 trillion in 2020, up from $600 billion in 2018.
  • In its report titled, ‘The Hidden Costs of Cybercrime’, the firm said that the annual cost of cybercrime this year would be more than 1% of the global gross domestic product (GDP).
  • It added that global spending on cybersecurity is also expected to surpass $ 145 billion this year.

 Major Cyberattacks and trends this year globally:

  • Remote working made cyberattacks easier to pull off: As many corporations asked their employees to work from home with their office-provided devices, unsecure access to office network made it difficult for the companies to protect their workers from cyberattacks.
  • Attacks on vaccine makers: This year cybercriminals were after scientists researching vaccine for COVID-19. According to multiple reports published in December, North Korean hackers targeted at least six pharmaceutical companies working on Covid-19 treatments in the U.S., the U.K. and South Korea.
  • Twitter cryptocurrency hack: In July, a number of high-profile twitter accounts were compromised as a result of a bitcoin scam. Fake tweets about bitcoins went viral from twitter accounts of former U.S. President Barack Obama, Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, Tesla’s Elon Musk, Bill Gates, U.S. President-elect Joe Biden, and several others. Elon Musk’s account was the first one to post the bitcoin tweet.
  • Return of EMOTET: Emotet, a notorious malware, returned after a five-month break with a new malicious spam campaign. Emotet marked its return in July by sending out 250,000 spam emails to the people in the U.S. and U.K. The messages contained a malicious document or link that when activated, installs Emotet payload.
  • Zoom data leak: Zoom became an overnight success after people around the world had to shift their in-person meetings to video calls due to the pandemic. But, even before most could rely on the video-conferencing app, reports of Zoom leaking users’ data surfaced. Over 500,000 Zoom accounts were being sold on the dark web and hacker forums for less than a penny.
  • Cyberattack on Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories: On October 22, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories was cyberattacked, leading to a temporary shutdown of some of its production facilities. The pharma company also isolated all of its data centres to take required actions after detection of a cyberattack.
  • Big Basket data breach: In November, online grocery firm Big Basket’s systems were hacked and almost 20 million users’ data was leaked. According to cybersecurity firm Cyble, the alleged breach occurred on October 14. Two weeks later the firm informed Big Basket, and made the details public.





Why in News?

  • Similar to nanoshells and nanovesicles, nanomicelles are extremely small structures and have been noted as an emerging platform in targeted therapy.

About Nanomicelles

  • Nanomicelles are globe-like structures with a hydrophilic outer shell and a hydrophobic interior.
  • This dual property makes them a perfect carrier for delivering drug molecules.
  • Nanomicelle can be used to deliver a drug named docetaxel, which is commonly used to treat various cancers including breast, colon and lung cancer.
  • The ideal goal for cancer therapy is destroying the cancer cells without harming healthy cells of the body, and chemotherapeutics approved for treatment of cancer are highly toxic.

Problem with Current Method

  • The currently used docetaxel is a highly hydrophobic drug, and is dissolved in a chemical mixture (polysorbate-80 and alcohol).
  • This aggravates its toxic effects on liver, blood cells, and lungs.
  • So, there was an urgent and unmet need to develop effective drug delivery vehicles for docetaxel without these side effects.

Benefits of Nanomicelles

  • The nanomicelles are less than 100nm in size and are stable at room temperature.
  • Once injected intravenously these nanomicelles can easily escape the circulation and enter the solid tumours where the blood vessels are found to be leaky.
  • These leaky blood vessels are absent in the healthy organs.
  • Chemical conjugation would render the phospholipid-docetaxel prodrug to be silent in the circulation and healthy organs. But once it enters the cancer cells, the enzymes will cleave the bond to activate the drug, and kill the cancer cells.
  • Its toxicity was compared with the currently used FDA approved formulation and found to be less toxic. Similar promising results were seen when tested in higher model organisms including rats, rabbits and rhesus monkeys.
  • They work by enhancing the expression of tumour suppressor genes.
  • These nanomicelles are extremely cost-effective and can prove to be next-generation chemotherapeutic.




Governor’s Role in Calling an Assembly Session

Why in News?

  • In yet another tug-of-war between Kerala Governor Arif Mohammad Khan and Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan, the Governor has turned down a request to summon a special sitting of the Assembly to debate the new three central farm laws.

Who can summon a session of the Assembly?

  • “The Governor shall from time to time summon the House or each House of the Legislature of the State to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit…” says Article 174 of the Constitution.
  • The provision also puts on the Governor the responsibility of ensuring that the House is summoned at least once every six months.
  • Although it is the Governor’s prerogative to summon the House, according to Article 163, the Governor is required to act on the “aid and advice” of the Cabinet.
  • So when the Governor summons the House under Article 174, this is not of his or her own will but on the aid and advice of the Cabinet.

Can the Governor refuse the aid and advice of the Cabinet?

  • There are a few instances where the Governor can summon the House despite the refusal of the Chief Minister who heads the Cabinet.
  • When the Chief Minister appears to have lost the majority and the legislative members of the House propose a no-confidence motion against the Chief Minister, then the Governor can decide on his or her own on summoning the House.
  • But the actions of the Governor, when using his discretionary powers can be challenged in court.

How have the courts ruled?

  • A number of rulings by the Supreme Court has settled the position that the Governor cannot refuse the request of a Cabinet that enjoys majority in the House unless it is patently unconstitutional.
  • The latest in the line of rulings is the landmark 2016 Constitution Bench ruling in which the Supreme Court looked into the constitutional crisis in Arunachal Pradesh after the Governor had imposed President’s Rule in the state.
  • “In ordinary circumstances during the period when the Chief Minister and his council of ministers enjoy the confidence of the majority of the House, the power vested with the Governor under Article 174 to summon, prorogue and dissolve the house(s) must be exercised in consonance with the aid and advice of the chief minister and his council of ministers. In the above situation, he is precluded [from taking] an individual call on the issue at his own will, or in his own discretion,” the verdict said.
  • The court read the power to summon the House as a “function” of the Governor and not a “power” he enjoys.
  • “If the functions of the Governor were to be read as his power, and an untrammelled one at that (in view of Article 163 of the Constitution, as contended), then the Governor has the power to literally summon the Assembly to meet ‘at such time and place as he thinks fit’ that is in any city and at any place other than the Legislative Assembly building and at any odd time. This is nothing but arbitrary and surely, an arbitrary exercise of power is not what our Constitution makers either contemplated in the hands of the Governor or imagined its wielding by any constitutional authority,” the court said.
  • Even the Sarkaria Commission of 1983, which reviewed the arrangements between the Centre and the states, had said that “so long as the Council of Ministers enjoys the confidence of the Assembly, its advice in these matters, unless patently unconstitutional must be deemed as binding on the Governor.
  • It is only where such advice, if acted upon, would lead to an infringement of a constitutional provision, or where the Council of Ministers has ceased to enjoy the confidence of the Assembly, that the question arises whether the Governor may act in the exercise of his discretion”.

 What happens if the Kerala government insists on holding the special session?

  • Since the Governor’s powers are limited with regard to summoning the House, there can be no legal ground to deny a request for summoning the session.
  • In the political slugfest, the Governor’s refusal can also be challenged in court.
  • The political nature of the office of the Governor, especially in Opposition-ruled states, has been underlined in several instances by courts.
  • The constitutional checks and balances and landmark court rulings account for this and limit the discretionary powers of the Governor.



Giant Antarctic Iceberg A68a

Why in News?

  • The giant iceberg A68, the biggest block of free-floating ice from Antarctica with an area of about 5,800 sq. km, has been drifting in the Atlantic Ocean since 2017.
  • This year, due to an ocean current, the iceberg was propelled into the South Atlantic Ocean and since then it has been drifting towards the remote sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, prompting fears about the impact the iceberg could have on the island’s abundant wildlife.

What is A68a and where is it headed?

  • A68a, an iceberg split off from Antarctica’s Larsen C ice shelf in July 2017.
  • Since then it has been drifting towards the remote island of South Georgia, which is a British Overseas Territory (BOT).
  • Recently, the US National Ice Center (USNIC) (USNIC is responsible for naming icebergs, which are named according to the Antarctic quadrant in which they are spotted) confirmed that two new icebergs calved from A68a and were large enough to be named and tracked. They are called A68E and A68F.
  • The fear is that if the iceberg grounds itself near the island, it could cause disruption to the local wildlife that forages in the ocean.
  • As per ecologists from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), which will launch a research mission to study A68a’s impact on the ecosystem next month, if the iceberg gets stuck near the island, it could mean that penguins and seals will have to travel farther in search of food, and for some this might mean that they don’t get back in time to prevent their offspring from starving to death.
  • There are some positives of an iceberg being stuck in the open ocean, since icebergs carry dust which fertilises ocean plankton, which draws up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Why did the iceberg calve?

  • As per BAS, the iceberg’s calving is thought to be a natural event and not a result of climate change.
  • However, some models predict that a warming Antarctica in the future could mean more calving events as ice shelves and glaciers retreat.





Why in News?

  • Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) have identified a gene ‘BBX11’ that facilitates in the greening of plants by playing a crucial role in regulating the levels of protochlorophyllide — an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the green pigment chlorophyll.

Process for Chlorophyll Synthesis

  • The synthesis of chlorophyll in plants is a lengthy, multi-step process.
  • When a seedling emerges from under the soil it must quickly synthesise chlorophyll to start supporting its own growth.
  • In order to facilitate quick synthesis of chlorophyll, plants make a precursor of chlorophyll called ‘protochlorophyllide’ in the dark, which glows red when blue light is shone on the plant.
  • As soon as the plant comes out into the light from under the soil, light-dependent enzymes convert protochlorophyllide to chlorophyll.
  • Using genetic, molecular and biochemical techniques, the duo found a mechanism where two proteins oppositely regulate the ‘BBX11’ gene to maintain optimum levels of ‘BBX11’.
  • The amount of protochlorophyllide synthesised needed to be proportional to the number of enzymes available to convert them to chlorophyll.

What happen if there is excess of free protochlorophyllide?

  • Then exposure to light converts it into molecules that cause ‘photobleaching’.
  • Thus, it is very important to regulate the amount of protochlorophyllide synthesized by the plant and here comes the vital plant played by the ‘BBX11’ gene.
  • If it is less, plants are unable to efficiently ‘green’ in order to harvest sunlight.
  • If the amount of protochlorophyllide is more, then plants bleach under the light.

Benefits of Study

  • The study could have tremendous implications in the agriculture sector in tropical countries like India and can help provide leads to optimise plant growth under stressful and rapidly changing climatic conditions.
  • Due to the rapidly changing climatic conditions, farmers in several states in India, especially in Maharashtra, are suffering huge losses in crop yields.
  • Severe drought, high temperature and high light are some of the major reasons for crop failure. Young seedlings emerging out of the soil are extremely sensitive to high irradiance of light.




Protecting Employees from Domestic Abuse

Why in News?

  • In perhaps a first, Hindustan Unilever (HUL) has framed a policy to protect its employees from domestic abuse.
  • This extends the scope of employee well-being beyond work — that is, the office —to his/her personal life and home.
  • Policy comes at a time when a significant number of its office-based staff are working from home.
  • The policy seeks to protect and grant relief to employees who are survivors of abuse, or acts of physical/emotional abuse beyond the workplace.




  • During the lockdown, cases of domestic violence have gone up significantly.
  • The complaints the National Commission for Women (NCW) received on domestic violence against women doubled in the first month of the lockdown from 123 during February 27-March 22 to 250 between March 23-April 22.
  • Insights reveal that when people suffer abuse, their immediate family is not necessarily a credible support.



Marathwada Rail Coach Factory

Why in News?

  • Indian Railways’ PSU, Rail Vikas Nigam Limited (RVNL) commissioned Marathwada Rail Coach Factory in Latur, Maharashtra on the Good Governance Day, 25th December, 2020 with production of the first coach shell.
  • The factory has been commissioned in only about two years ago.
  • This factory has been designed with an initial capacity of manufacturing 250 MEMU / EMU / LHB / train set type advanced coaches per annum.
  • Various green initiatives have been adopted in the project for sustainable development which include 800 kilo Watt shed roof mounted solar power plant, sewage and waste water treatment and recycling plant, rain water harvesting, plantation of 10,000 trees, LED lighting, natural day lighting and ventilation in sheds.
  • The administrative Block has also been built with green building concepts.




ISRO Developing Green Propulsion

Why in News?

  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman said the space agency was developing ‘green propulsion’ for its ambitious human space flight mission, ‘Gaganyaan’.
  • It may be adopted for use in every stage of a rocket.
  • ISRO has made space grade lithium-ion batteries and this technology is useful for mass adoption of electric vehicle.
  • According to ISRO, polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV) is a four stage rocket filled with fuel which pushes the rocket to ensure that the satellite it carries is placed in the intended orbit.
  • GSLV or a geo-stationery launch vehicle (GSLV) is a three stage rocket with a cryogenic upper stage.
  • The Bengaluru-headquartered space agency had planned to launch its maiden human space flight mission ‘Gaganyaan’ by December 2021.
  • But early this month, ISRO indicated that it is likely to be delayed by one year due to the impact of Covid-19 pandemic.




Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U) Mission

Why in News?

  • Andhra Pradesh has secured the third position in the ‘best performing state’ category in the annual awards announced by the Union ministry of housing and urban affairs for its implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U) Mission.
  • AP has also been selected for ‘project monitoring tools’ and ‘innovative construction technology’ under the ‘special award’ category.
  • While Visakhapatnam has bagged an award under the ‘best performing Municipal Corporation’ category.
  • Further, three housing beneficiaries of the state, including Satraboina Durga of Vizag city, have been selected under the ‘best house construction’ category.




Udham Singh

Why in News?

  • December 26 is the birth anniversary of freedom fighter Udham Singh, known for avenging the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919.
  • In 1940, Singh shot and killed Michael O’Dwyer, the colonial official considered responsible for Jallianwala Bagh, where over 1,000 men, women and children lost their lives, and more than were 1,200 wounded.

Who was Udham Singh?

  • Born in Sunam in Punjab’s Sangrur district in 1899, was a political activist who got associated with the Ghadar Party while in the US.
  • The multi-ethnic party was believed to have communist tendencies and was founded by Sohan Singh Bhakna in 1913.
  • Headquartered in California, the party was committed to the ouster of the British from India.
  • In 1934, Singh made his way to London with the purpose of assassinating O’Dwyer, who in 1919 had been the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab and, unsurprisingly, Singh considered O’Dwyer to be responsible for the massacre.
  • Instead of Dyer, who instructed his men to open fire at the crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, O’Dwyer is considered to be the actual perpetrator, since Dyer could not have executed it without his permission.

The assassination of O’Dwyer

  • On March 13, 1940, Udham Singh shot O’Dwyer at a meeting of the East India Association and the Royal Central Asian Society at Caxton Hill.
  • He was immediately arrested and held in Brixton prison.
  • At the prison, Singh staged a 36-day hunger strike and in police statements and at the court referred to himself as Mohamed Singh Azad, to symbolise Hindu-Sikh-Muslim unity in the fight for India’s freedom.
  • He was sentenced to death and was hanged on July 31, 1940 at Pentonville Prison.
  • In 1974, his remains were sent back to India and he was cremated in his village in Sunam.
  • Udham Singh Nagar district in Uttarakhand is named after the freedom fighter.





Why in News?

  • Researchers have unearthed a thermopolium, Latin for hot drinks counter, in the Roman Empire town of Pompeii, today one of the world’s largest and most significant archaeological sites.
  • It was partially excavated in 2019 was found complete with an image of a Nereid riding a sea-horse, decorative still-life frescoes, food residues, animals bones and victims who died during the volcanic eruption of 79 CE.
  • The find is significant because it shows the variety of food consumed by the residents of the town — traces of pork, fish, snails and beef have been found in the containers of the stall.
  • It is also the first time an entire thermopolium has been excavated, complete with pateras, or bronze drinking bowls, ceramic jars used for cooking stews and soups, wine flasks and amphora, usually used for storing and transporting wine and olive oil.

What is the story of Pompeii?

  • Pompeii was a Roman town in Southern Italy’s Campania region situated along the Bay of Naples.
  • The town was completely buried by volcanic ash after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE, over 2000 years ago.
  • However, it was not only the residents of Pompeii who were affected (over 16,000 died), the eruption also destroyed the neighbouring town of Herculaneum.
  • Even so, it is due to the tragedy that the town is well preserved and has given archaeologists vast materials to study daily Roman daily life, as it was centuries ago.
  • Located 8 km from the volcano, Pompeii was as a resort town frequented by Rome’s elite citizens and consisted of villas, cafes, marketplaces and a 20,000-seat arena.



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