- The frequency of “very severe cyclonic storms” has increased in recent years over the Arabian Sea.
- However, this has not measurably increased the threat to India’s western coast, as most of these cyclones were making landfall in Oman and Yemen.
- A very severe cyclone is defined as one with wind speeds touching 220 kmph. It is the fourth highest category of cyclones, just below “extremely severe cyclones”.
- Coastal vulnerability However, the eastern coast remained far more vulnerable to “extremely severe cyclones” than the western coast, but there was nevertheless “no significant trend” in the frequency of extremely severe cyclonic storms (ESCS).
- “The increase in frequency of cyclones over the Arabian Sea has not posed a corresponding increase in the coastal vulnerability along the west coast since most of such cyclones forming over the Arabian Sea were making landfall over the coasts of Oman, Yemen etc. and hence the threat to Gujarat & Maharashtra coasts remains same,”
- On an average, 60%-80% of the cyclones developing over the North Indian Ocean (NIO), comprising the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, made landfall causing loss of life and property.
- Low-lying coastal belts of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and Puducherry were more prone to the impact of these systems.
- The number of deaths due to cyclones has decreased significantly, as a result of the improvement in the early warning skill of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), and effective mitigation measures and response actions by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
Right to choice of food
- The Allahabad High Court has held that the right to choice of food falls within the fundamental right to food.
- The right to food is a human right. It protects the right of all human beings to live in dignity, free from hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. The right to food is not about charity, but about ensuring that all people have the capacity to feed themselves in dignity
- State’s approach to cattle slaughter had the effect of prohibition on the trade of the Petitioner, and was in violation of his fundamental rights under Article 19 (livelihood) and 21 (life) of the Constitution of India.
Right to protest and free movement
- SC on right to protest and free movement
- No person or group of persons can block public places or carriageways to demonstrate or express dissent.
- Authorities should remove such blockade.
- Protest should be at designated places.
- Occupation of public places or roads by demonstrators, which cause inconvenience to a large number of people and violate their rights, is not permissible under law.
- Right to peaceful protest is a constitutional right and it has to be respected. But that does not mean agitating people should adopt means and modes of protest that was used against colonial rulers during the struggle for independence.
- In today’s time, social media can be used to create a highly polarized situation, which was seen at Shaheen Bagh protests.
- Protests, by their very nature, are not always rooted in legality, but rather derive legitimacy from the rightness of the underlying cause and the extent of public support.
- In many cases, they are against laws and regulations perceived as unjust.
- A flash strike, a spontaneous road block, a call for a complete shutdown, or a campaign to fill up jails by defying prohibitory orders each of these is not, in a strict sense, legal; but, at the same time, it is an inevitable part of the culture of protest in a democracy.
- The need for balance between the right to protest and the right to free movement, and the rule that protests should take place at designated spots.
- Avian influenza refers to the disease caused by infection with avian (bird) influenza (flu) Type A viruses.
- These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian flu viruses do not normally infect humans.
- H5N1 is the most common form of bird flu. It’s deadly to birds and can easily affect humans and other animals that come in contact with a carrier.
Pandemic and education
- Children’s education and health are two major domains in which welfare policies of the modern state are expected to support and enhance the family’s role.
- In both these domains, the policy framework reflects a minimalist stance, both in terms of financial investment and institutional strength.
- In policies as well as in their execution, there is considerable diversity and disparity among the States.