Current Affairs October 29, 2021

Parent Company

  • Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg announced that the parent company’s name is being changed to “Meta” to represent a future beyond just its troubled social network.
  • When one company controls another, this is known as a parent company subsidiary relationship.
  • Typically, a parent company is created when a company purchases a controlling amount of voting stock in another company. Usually, a parent company is a large company that owns a smaller company.
  • The subsidiary company can be in the same industry as the parent company or can be in a related industry.
  • A parent company may own a variety of small subsidiary companies.
  • Parent companies can be directly involved in the operations of the subsidiary company, or they can take a completely hands-off approach.
  • For instance, the parent company can allow the subsidiary company to retain its managerial control. Subsidiary companies can be wholly or partially owned by a parent company, but a parent company is required to own over half of the voting stock in the subsidiary company.
  • Holding companies and conglomerates are two different types of parent companies.
  • Conglomerates are large companies that maintain their own business ventures while also owning smaller companies. Holding companies have no business ventures of their own.
  • The only purpose of a holding company is to own subsidiary companies.



China base in Tajikistan

  • China will take full control of a military base in Tajikistan near the Afghan border that it has been quietly operating and will also build a new base for the Tajik Government, according to a report on Thursday.
  • Tajikistan on granted approval for the construction of a new base, following an agreement reached between Tajikistan’s Interior Ministry and China’s Public Security Ministry or police force,
  • While this base will be under Tajik control, the Tajikistan Government has also agreed to transfer full control of an existing facility that both sides have been using jointly, a former Soviet base not far from the China-Tajikistan-Afghanistan tri-junction and the Wakhan Corridor, where China shares a less than 100 km border with Afghanistan.
  • Russia and India are among countries that already have a military presence in bases in Tajikistan
  • The base, once full control has been transferred, will become only the second known overseas Chinese security facility, after Djibouti near the Horn of Africa.



  • Key lawmakers continue to voice their support for a sanctions waiver for India for its purchase of the S-400 missile defence system from Russia.
  • India is likely to begin taking delivery of the S-400 in November, potentially activating U.S. sanctions under a 2017 law, Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)


  • The Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) is a United States federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, and Russia.
  • The bill was passed by the Senate on 27 July 2017, 98–2, after it passed the House 419–3.
  • The bill was signed into law on 2 August 2017 by President Donald Trump, who stated that he believed the legislation was “seriously flawed”
  • CAATSA requires the President to impose sanctions against: (1) Iran’s ballistic missile or weapons of mass destruction programs, (2) the sale or transfer to Iran of military equipment or the provision of related technical or financial assistance, and (3) Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and affiliated foreign persons.
  • The President may impose sanctions against persons responsible for violations of internationally recognized human rights committed against individuals in Iran.
  • The President may temporarily waive the imposition or continuation of sanctions under specified circumstances
  • The Act imposed new sanctions on Russia for interference in the 2016 US elections and its involvement in Ukraine and Syria.


G20 and climate change

  • G20 leaders in particular need to deliver.
  • The time has passed for diplomatic niceties. If governments, especially G20 governments, do not lead this effort, we are headed for terrible human suffering.
  • But all countries need to realise that the old, carbon-burning model of development is a death sentence for our planet.
  • We need decarbonisation now, across every sector in every country.
  • We need to shift subsidies from fossil fuels to renewable energy, and tax pollution, not people.
  • We need to put a price on carbon, and channel that towards resilient infrastructures and jobs.
  • And we need to phase-out coal by 2030 in OECD countries and 2040 in all others. Increasing numbers of governments have pledged to stop financing coal; private finance needs to do the same, urgently.
  • Everyone has a role to play People rightly expect their governments to lead.
  • But we all have a responsibility to safeguard our collective future.
  • Businesses need to reduce their climate impact, and fully and credibly align their operations and financial flows to a net zero future.
  • No more excuses; no more greenwashing. Investors must do the same.



  • What are Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances?
  • “Narcotic Drug” means coca leaf, cannabis (hemp), opium, poppy straw and includes all manufactured drugs.
  • “Psychotropic substance” means any substance, natural or synthetic, or any natural material or any salt or preparation of such substance or material included in the list of psychotropic substances specified in the Schedule.
  • The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 also knows as the NDPS Act, prohibits any individual from engaging in any activity consisting of production, cultivation, sale, purchase, transport, storage, and/or consumption of any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance.
  • It was enacted in 1985 to fulfil India’s treaty obligations under the Single convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.


  • To take measures for preventing, combating and regulation of operations relating to narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
  • To provide for the forfeiture of property derived from or used in, illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
  • To implement the provisions of the International conventions on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and for all the relevant matters.
  • To add or omit the list of psychotropic substances


  • The NDPS Act prohibits a person from manufacture / production / cultivation/ possession/ sale / purchase / transport / store / consume any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance without due permission from the appropriate authorities.

Salient Features

  • Cultivation and Production of Opium poppy straw
  • Delivery of the opium produced and its price determination
  • Manufacture of natural manufactured drugs
  • Submission of reports, returns, and estimates under international conventions

Family and early childhood education

  • Early Childhood Education (ECE) is crucial to the overall development of children, with impacts on their learning and even earning capabilities throughout their lifetimes.
  • A crucial factor for households to be able to prioritise ECE is active parental engagement in their child’s education, especially for children in the age group of three to six years who spend a majority of their time within the household and rely greatly on parental assistance in the learning process.
  • The overall development of a child in the early stages edicts a conducive home environment and parental involvement in addition to equitable access to the schooling system.
  • The socio-economic background of households determines access to preschools and the ability to invest in ECE
  • The pandemic has highlighted the glaring digital divide in the country, even in an urban context.
  • Unless the state vows to provide devices and Internet access to all children, it is clear that complete reliance on technology is not an option.
  • Even for those who are able to overcome the initial barrier of access, the ability to engage in ECE at home remains dependent on time and ability.
  • Households that have limited means have little time to invest in educational activities in the home
  • The pandemic has created an opportunity where parents and teachers have increasingly recognised the crucial role of parents as partners in their child’s education.
  • Efforts must be taken to empower households with time and resources so that they have the ability to prioritise ECE and are not forced to choose between their children’s education.
  • The provision of non-educational support to low-income households to alleviate income and food insecurities might be just as crucial in aiding parents to invest in education.
  • Second, we must collect information about teachers’ experiences (on suitable modes of engagement with parents and children, delivery logistics, constraints of parents, etc.) and on innovations they have developed to increase parental engagement during school closures